Std 12 Figures of Speech

2.1 Song of the Open Road    Walt Whitman

2.2 Indian Weavers                 Sarojini Naidu

2.3 The Inchcape Rock           Robert Southey

2.4 Have you Earned your Tomorrow            Edgar Guest

2.5 Father Returning Home    Dilip Chitre

2.6 Money       William H. Davies

2.7 She Walks in Beauty         George Gordon Byron

2.8 Small Towns and Rivers   Mamang Dai

Figures of Speech – Song of the open Road

2.1    Song of the Open Road

Alliteration

 1)    The long brown path before me leading wherever I choose

–         In this line ‘l’ sound is repeated so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

2)    Henceforth I whimper no more, postpone no more, need nothing,

–         In this line ‘n’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

3)    Done with indoor complaints, libraries, querulous criticisms, 

–         In this line ‘k’ sound is repeated so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

 Repetition

 1)      Henceforth I ask not good-fortune, I myself am good-fortune,

–         In this line the word ‘good-fortune’ is repeated so this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

2)      Henceforth I whimper no more, postpone no more, need nothing,

–         In this line the words ‘no & more’ are repeated so this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

3)      I know they are very well where they are,

–         In this line the words ‘they & are’ are repeated so this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

4)      I carry them, men and women, I carry them with me wherever I go,

–         In this line the words ‘carry & them’ are repeated so this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

5)      I am fill’d with them, and I will fill them in return.

–         In this line the words ‘fill & them’ are repeated so this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

 Inversion

1)    Afoot and light-hearted I take to the open road,

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is – I take to the open road afoot and light-hearted.

–         So this figure of speech is based on construction.

2)    Healthy, free, the world before me,

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is – The world before me healthy, free.

–         So this figure of speech is based on construction.

3)    The long brown path before me leading wherever I choose.

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is – Wherever I choose the long brown path before me leading,

–         So this figure of speech is based on construction.

4)    Strong and content I travel the open road.

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is – I travel the open road strong and content.

–         So this figure of speech is based on construction.

5)    I know they are very well where they are,

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is – Where they are I know they are very well,

–         So this figure of speech is based on construction.

6)    Still here I carry my old delicious burdens,

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is – I carry, still here my old delicious burdens.

–         So this figure of speech is based on construction.

7)    I carry them, men and women, I carry them with me wherever I go,

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is – Wherever I go, I carry them with me, I carry them, men and women,

–         So this figure of speech is based on construction.

Paradox

1)      Still here I carry my old delicious burdens,

–         The opposite words ‘delicious and burdens’ have been brought together with the sense of sarcasm, so this figure of speech is based on ‘difference or contrast.’

 Climax

 1)    Done with indoor complaints, libraries, querulous criticisms,

–         In this line ideas are arranged in ascending order, so this figure of speech is based on ‘difference or contrast.’

2)    Henceforth I whimper no more, postpone no more, need nothing,

–         In this line ideas are arranged in ascending order,  so this figure of speech is based on ‘difference or contrast.’

Tautology

1) Done with indoor complaints, libraries, querulous criticism…..

– ‘Complaint and Querulous criticism’ expresses the same meanings.

Metaphor

1) Still here……..burdens 

– Old sweet memories are indirectly compared to something delicious.

Personification

1)Song of the road

– Non-living objects on the road are shown singing.

Figures of Speech – Indian Weavers

2.2  Indian Weavers

 Alliteration

1)    Weavers, weaving at break of day, 

–         In this line ‘w’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

2)    Why do you weave a garment so gay?

–         In this line ‘g’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

3)    Blue as the wing of a halcyon wild,    

–         In this line ‘w’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

4)    Weavers, weaving at fall of night,     

–         In this line ‘w’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

 5)    Like the plumes of a peacock, purple and green,    

–         In this line ‘p’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

6)    Weavers, weaving solemn and still,  

–         In this line ‘w & s’ sounds are repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

Repetition

 1)      White as a feather and white as a cloud,

–         In this line the words ‘white & as’ are repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

 Simile

 1)      Blue as the wing of a halcyon wild,

–         In this line the colour of robes is directly compared with the wing of a wild halcyon.

–         So this figure of speech is based on ‘Resemblance.’

2)      White as a feather and white as a cloud,

–         In this line the colour of shroud is directly compared with the colour of feather and cloud.

–         So this figure of speech is based on ‘Resemblance.’

3)      Like the plumes of a peacock, purple and green,

–         In this line the colour of marriage-veils is directly compared with the plumes of peacock.

–         So this figure of speech is based on ‘Resemblance.’

 Inversion

1)    Blue as the wing of a halcyon wild,

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is – The wing of a halcyon wild is blue.

–         So this figure of speech is based on construction.

 Metaphor

1)      Weavers, weaving at break of day.

–         In this line break of day is indirectly compared with childhood.

–         So this figure of speech is based on ‘Resemblance.’

2)      Weavers, weaving at fall of night,

–         In this line fall of night is indirectly compared with adulthood.

–         So this figure of speech is based on ‘Resemblance.’

Figures of Speech – The Inchcape Rock

2.3 The Inchcape Rock

 Alliteration

 1)    No stir in the air, no stir in the sea,

–         In this line‘s’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

2)    The ship was as still as she could be,  

–         In this line‘s’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech isbased on ‘sound.’

3)    Without either sign or sound of their shock, 

–         In this line‘s’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

4)    On a buoy in the storm it floated and swung;

–         In this line‘s’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

5)    When the Rock was hid by the surge’s swell,

–         In this line‘s’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

6)    The Sun in heaven was shining gay,

–         In this line‘s’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

7)    The sea-birds scream’d as they wheel’d round,

–         In this line‘s’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

8)    And row me to the Inchcape Rock,

–         In this line ‘r’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

9)    The boat is lower’d, the boatmen row,

–         In this line ‘b’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

10)  Sir Ralph bent over from the boat,

–         In this line ‘b’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

11)  The bubbles rose and burst around;

–         In this line ‘b’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

12)  He scour’d the seas for many a day;

–         In this line‘s’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

 13)  He steers his course for Scotland’s shore.

–         In this line‘s’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

14)  They cannot see the Sun on high;

–         In this line‘s’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

15)  They hear no sound, the swell is strong;

–         In this line‘s’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

16)  Till the vessel strikes with a shivering shock,-

–         In this line‘s’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

17)  The ship is sinking beneath the tide.

–         In this line‘s’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

 Antithesis

1)    So little they rose, so little they fell,

–         In this line two opposite words (rose x fell) are used.

–         So this figure of speech is based on ‘difference or contrast.’

  Personification

 1)   The ship was as still as she could be, 

–         In this line the inanimate object ‘ship’ is personified.

–         So this figure of speech is based on Imagination.’

2)    They did not move the Inchcape Bell   

–         In this line the word ‘move’ is the human activity shown in the waves.

–         So this figure of speech is based on ‘Imagination.’

3)    The Sun in heaven was shining gay.  

–         In this line the word ‘gay’ is the human activity shown in the Sun.

–         So this figure of speech is based on ‘Imagination.’

4)    He felt the cheering power of spring, 

–         In this line the word ‘cheering’ is the human quality shown in spring.

–         So this figure of speech is based on ‘Imagination.’

 Repetition

 1)    No stir in the air, no stir in the sea,

–         In this line the words ‘no, stir, in & the’ are repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

2)    So little they rose, so little they fell,

–         In this line words ‘so, little & they’ are repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

3)    It made him whistle, it made him sing;

–         In this line words ‘it, made & him’ are repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

 Metaphor

 1)    A sound as if with the Inchcape Bell,

–         In this line a dreadful sound is indirectly compared with the sound of inchcape bell.

–         So this figure of speech is based on ‘Resemblance.’

2)          The Devil below was ringing his knell.

–         In this line devil ringing is indirectly compared with the rover’s death.

–         So this figure of speech is based on ‘Resemblance.’

Inversion

 1)    Her sails from heaven received no motion,

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is – Her sails received no motion from heaven.

–         So this figure of speech is based on construction.

2)    On a buoy in the storm it floated and swung;

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is – It floated and swung on a buoy in the storm

–         So this figure of speech is based on construction.

3)    And over the waves its warning rung.

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is – And its warning rung over the waves.

–         So this figure of speech based on construction.

4)    A darker speck on the ocean green.

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is –  On the ocean green a darker speck.

   So this figure of speech is based on construction

5)    Quoth he,“My men, put out the boat”,

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is – He quoth,“My men, put out the boat”.

   So this figure of speech is based on construction

6)    And to the Inchcape Rock they go;

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is – And they go to the Inchcape Rock.

–         So this figure of speech is is based on construction.

7)    Down sunk the bell with a gurgling sound.

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is – The bell sunk down with a gurgling sound.

–         So this figure of speech is is based on construction.

8)    At evening it hath died away.

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is – It hath died away at evening.

–         So this figure of speech is based on construction.

9)    On the deck the Rover takes his stand,

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is – The Rover takes his stand on the deck.

–         So this figure of speech is based on construction.

10)  So dark it is they see no land.

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is – It is so dark they see no land.

–         So this figure of speech is based on construction.

11)  ‘Now where we are I  cannot tell,

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is – I cannot tell now where we are.

            So this figure of speech is based on construction

 12)  One dreadful sound could the Rover hear,

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is – he Rover could hear one dreadful sound.

           So this figure of speech is based on construction

 Onomatopoeia

 1)    Down sunk the bell with a gurgling sound.

–         In this line the word ‘gurgling’ brings out the sound by bell, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound’.

2)    And over the waves its warning rung.

–          In this line the word ‘rung’ brings out the sound of bell, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound’.

3)    The sea-birds scream’d as they wheel’d round.

–         In this line the word ‘scream’d’ brings out the sound by birds, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound’.

 Apostrophe

 1)    O Christ !

–         In this example ‘Christ’ has been directly addressed, so this figure of speech is based on ‘imagination’.

Simile

 1)    A sound as if with the Inchcape Bell

–         In this line the sound of sinking ship is directly compared with sound of sinking the Inchcape Bell, so this figure of speech is based on ‘Resemblance.’

Figures of Speech – Have you Earned your Tomorrow

2.4   Have you Earned your Tomorrow

 Alliteration

1)    This day is almost over, and its toiling time is through; 

–         In this line‘t’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

2)    Did you give a cheerful greeting to the friend who came along?  

–         In this line ‘g’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

3)    Were you selfish pure and simple as you rushed along the way, 

–         In this line‘s’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

4)    Or is someone mighty grateful for a deed you did today?

–         In this line‘d’ sounds are repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

5)    Can you say tonight, in parting with the days that’s slipping fast,

–         In this line‘s’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

6)    Is a single heart rejoicing over what you did or said;

–         In this line‘s’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

7)    Did you waste the day, or lose it, was it well or sorely spent?

–         In this line ‘w & s’ sounds are repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

8)    As you close your eyes in slumber do you think that God would say,

–         In this line‘s’ sounds are repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

9)    You have earned one more tomorrow by the work you did today?

–         In this line‘t’ sounds are repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

  Interrogation

 1)      Is anybody happier because you passed his way?

–         It is a question without expecting an answer, so this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

2)      Does anyone remember that you spoke to him today?

–         It is a question without expecting an answer, so this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

3)      Is there anyone to utter now a kindly word of you?

–         It is a question without expecting an answer, so this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

 4)      Did you give a cheerful greeting to the friend who came along?

–         It is a question without expecting an answer, so this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

5)    Or a churlish sort of “Howdy” and then vanish in the throng?

–         It is a question without expecting an answer, so this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

6)    Or is someone mighty grateful for a deed you did today?

–         It is a question without expecting an answer, so this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

7)    That you helped a single brother of the many that you passed?

–         It is a question without expecting an answer, so this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

8)      Does a man whose hopes were fading now with courage look ahead?

–         It is a question without expecting an answer, so this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

9)      Did you waste the day, to lose it, was it well or sorely spent?

–         It is a question without expecting an answer, so this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

10)    Did you leave a trail of kindness or a scar of discontent?

–         It is a question without expecting an answer, so this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

11)  You have earned one more tomorrow by the work you did today?

–         It is a question without expecting an answer, so this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

   Antithesis

1)       That you helped a single brother of the many that you passed?

–         In this line two opposite words (single x many) are used.

–         So this figure of speech is based on ‘difference or contrast.’

  Personification

1)   Is a single heart rejoicing over what you did or said;                                                                    

–         In this line the word ‘rejoicing’ is the human quality shown in heart.

–         So this figure of speech is based on Imagination.’

Figures of Speech – Father Returning Home

2.5  Father Returning Home

 Alliteration

1)    My father travels the late evening train  

–         In this line‘t’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

2) Standing among silent commuters in the yellow light  

–         In this line‘s’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

3)    Suburbs slide past his unseeing eyes  

–         In this line‘s’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

4)    Stained with mud and his bag stuffed with books 

–         In this line‘s & b’ sounds are repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

5)    Fade homeward through the humid monsoon night.   

–         In this line ‘h’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

6)    Like a word dropped from a long sentence.  

–         In this line ‘l’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

7)    Crosses the railway line, enters the lane, 

–         In this line ‘l’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

8)    Man’s estrangement from a man-made world. 

–         In this line ‘m’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

9)    Of nomads entering a subcontinent through a narrow pass. 

–         In this line ‘n’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

 Inversion

 1)    Home again, I see him drinking weak tea,

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is –

–         I see him drinking weak tea, home again.

–         So this figure of speech is based on construction.

2)    Coming out he trembles at the sink,

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is –

–         He trembles coming out at the sink.

–         So this figure of speech is based on construction.

Simile

1)    Like a word dropped form a long sentence

–         In this line ‘getting off the train’ is directly compared with ‘a word dropped from a long sentence’, so this figure of speech is based on ‘Resemblance.’

 Personification

1) The cold water running over his brown hands,  

–         In this line the word ‘running’ is the human quality shown in cold water.

–         So this figure of speech is based on ‘Imagination.’

2)    Home again, I see him drinking weak tea.

–         In this line the word ‘weak’ is the human quality shown in tea.

–         So this figure of speech is based on ‘Imagination.’

Climax

1)    He hurries across the length of the grey platform.

Crosses the railway line, enters the lane.

–         In these lines ideas are arranged in ascending order.

–         So this figure of speech is based on ‘difference or contrast’.

Onomatopoeia

 1)    Listening to the static on the radio, dreaming.

–         In this line the word ‘static’ brings out the sound by the radio.

–         So this figure of speech is based on ‘sound’.

Synecdoche

1)    I  see him drinking weak tea, eating a stale chapati

–         In this line the part ‘stale chapati’ stands for the food. (whole)

–         So this figure of speech is based on ‘association’

Transferred Epithet

1)    Fade homeward through the humid monsoon night’.

–         In this line an epithet (adjective) ‘humid’ is transferred from the weather to the night.

–         So this figure of speech is based on ‘association’

2)    Suburbs slide past his unseeing eyes

–         In this line an epithet ( adjective) ‘unseeing’ is transferred from person to eyes.

–         So this figure of speech is based on ‘association’

3)    Home again, I see him drinking weak tea.

–         In this line an epithet ( adjective) ‘weak’ is transferred from person to tea.

–         So this figure of speech is based on ‘association’

Figures of Speech – Money

2.6 –  Money

       Alliteration

1)    For many a false man as a friend   

–         In this line ‘f’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

2)    Came knocking all day at my door.  

–         In this line ‘d’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech based on ‘sound.’

3)    Because a man is dead; I dared  

–         In this line‘d’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

4)    Not speak to let this false world know.  

–         In this line‘n’ sound is reated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

5)    And how their wives do hum like bees  

–         In this line‘h’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

6)    Poor men, think I, need not go up    

–         In this line‘n’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

7)    So much as rich men should come down. 

–         In this line‘m’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

8)    But now I have no money, O!                                                           

–         In this line‘n’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

9)    My friends are real, through very few.        

–         In this line‘f’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

Repetition

1)    When I had money, money, O!

–         In this line the word ‘money’ is repeated. s this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

Onomatopoeia

1)    And how their wives do hum like bees

–         In this line the word ‘hum’ brings out the sound by bees, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound’.

Simile

1)    Then felt I like a child that holds

–         In this line ‘poet himself’ is directly compared with a ‘child’, so this figure of speech is based on ‘Resemblance.’

2)    And now their wives do hum like bees

–         In this line ‘humming of wives’ is directly compared with ‘humming of bees’.

–         So this figure of speech is based on ‘Resemblance.’

 Inversion

1)    Then felt I like a child that holds

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is – Then I felt like a child that holds.

–         So this figure of speech is based on construction.

2)    Much have I thought of life, and seen

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is – I have thought much of life and seen.

–         So this figure of speech is based on construction.

3)    A trumpet that he must not blow

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is – That he must not blow a trumpet.

–         So this figure of speech is based on construction.

4)    Because a man is dead; I dared

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is – I dared because a man is dead.

–         So this figure of speech is based on construction.

5)    Poor men, think I, need not go up

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is – I think, poor men, need not go up.

–         So this figure of speech is based on construction.

  Antithesis

1)       So, when I hear these poor ones laugh,

   And see the rich ones coldly frown

–   In these lines two opposite words (poor ones x rich ones), (laugh x frown) are used.

–    So this figure of speech is based on ‘difference or contrast.’

2)    Poor men. Think I, need not go up

So much as rich men should come down.

–    In these lines two opposite words (poor men x rich men), (up x down)  are used.

–   So this figure of speech is based on ‘difference or contrast.’

3)    About their work from morn till night.

–    In this line two opposite words (morning x night) are used.

     So this figure of speech is based on ‘difference or contrast.’

Figures of Speech – She Walks in Beauty

 2.7 –  She Walks in Beauty

  Alliteration

1)     Of cloudless climes and starry skies; 

–         In this line ‘K’ &‘S’ sounds are repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

2)     And all that’s best of dark and bright 

–         In this line ‘b’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

3)     Thus mellowed to that tender light  

–         In this line ‘th’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

4)     Which heaven to gaudy day denies.

–         In this line ‘d’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

5)     Or softly lightens o’er her face;  

–         In this line ‘o’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

6)     Where thoughts serenely sweet express,  

–         In this line‘s’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

7)     How pure, how dear their dwelling-place. 

–         In this line‘p’&‘d’ sounds are repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

8)     So soft, so calm, yet eloquent,  

–         In this line‘s’ sound is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

Repetition

 1)     And all that’s best of dark and bright

–         In this line the word ‘and’ is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

2)     Meet in her aspect and her eyes;

–         In this line the word ‘her’ is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

3)     One shade the more, one ray the less,

–         In this line the word ‘one’ is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

4)     How pure, how dear their dwelling-place.

–         In this line the word ‘how’ is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

5)     And on that cheek, and o’er that brow,

–         In this line the words ‘and & that’ are repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

6)     So soft, so calm, yet eloquent

–         In this line the word ‘so’ is repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

7)     The smile that win, the tints that glow,

–         In this line the words ‘the & that’ are repeated, so this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

Antithesis

 1)        One shade the more, one ray the less,

–         In this line two opposite words (more x less) are used, so this figure of speech is based on ‘difference or contrast.’

2)     And all that’s best of dark and bright

–         In this line two opposite words (dark x bright) are used, so this figure of speech is based on ‘difference or contrast.’

 Simile

1)     She walks in beauty, like the night

Of cloudless climes and starry skies;

–         In these lines ‘her beauty’ is directly compared with a ‘cloudless starry skies’.

–         So this figure of speech is based on ‘Resemblance.’

 Personification

1)  The smiles that win, the tints that glow,  

–         In this line the word ‘win’ is the human quality shown in lady’s smile.

–          So this figure of speech is based on ‘Imagination.’  

2)     Which heaven to gaudy day denies.                                 

–         In this line the word ‘denying’ is the human activity shown in day.

–          So this figure of speech is based on ‘Imagination.’  

Metaphor

1)     Which waves in every raven tress,

–         In this line black hair are indirectly compared with raven tress.

–         So this figure of speech is based on ‘Resemblance.’

2)     Where thoughts serenely sweet express,

how pure, how dear dwelling-place.

–         In these lines thoughts & dwelling-place are indirectly compared with people & mind.

–         So this figure of speech is based on ‘Resemblance.’

Climax

1)     And on that cheek, and o’ver that brow.

So soft, so calm, yet eloquent,

–         In these lines ideas are arranged in ascending order.

–         So this figure of speech is based on ‘difference or contrast’.

Figures of Speech – Small Towns and Rivers

2.8 – Small Towns and Rivers

  Alliteration

1)     Just the other day someone died.                                                                       

–         In this line ‘d’ sound is repeated, so, this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

2)     In the dreadful silence we wept                                                                     

–         In this line ‘w’ sound is repeated, so, this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

3)     From the first drop of rain to dry earth                                                                    

–         In this line ‘d’ & ‘f’ sounds are repeated, so, this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

4)      and mist on the mountaintops,                                                                           

–         In this line ‘m’ sound is repeated, so, this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

5)     It will walk into the golden east, 

–         In this line ‘w’ sound is repeated, so, this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

6)     Life matters, like this.  

–         In this line ‘l’ sound is repeated, so, this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

7)     We all want to walk with the gods.   

–         In this line ‘w’ sound is repeated, so, this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

8)     The dead are placed pointing west.  

–         In this line ‘p’ sound is repeated, so, this figure of speech is based on ‘sound.’

 Repetition

 1)     Life and death, life and death,

–         In this line the words ‘life’ & ‘death’ are repeated, so, this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

2)     Like a torrent of grief. Sometimes,

Sometimes, I think it holds its breath

–         In these lines the words ‘sometimes’ are repeated, so, this figure of speech is based on ‘construction.’

  Antithesis

1)   in summer or winter,

–         In this line two opposite words (summer x winter) are used.

–         So, this figure of speech is based on ‘difference or contrast.’

1)     Life and death, life and death,

–         In this line two opposite words (life x death) are used.

–         So, this figure of speech is based on ‘difference or contrast.’

 Personification

1)  My hometown lies calmly amidst the trees,                      

–         In this line the word ‘lying calmly’ is the human quality shown in hometown.

–          So, this figure of speech is based on ‘Imagination.’  

2) Or the wind howling down the gorge.                                

–         In this line the word ‘howling down’ is the human quality shown in wind.

–          So, this figure of speech is based on ‘Imagination.’

2)     The river has a soul.  

–         In this line the word ‘soul’ is the human quality shown in river.

–          So, this figure of speech is based on ‘Imagination.’  

3)     A shrine of happy pictures 

–         In this line the word ‘happy’ is the human quality shown in pictures.

–          So, this figure of speech is based on ‘Imagination.’  

4)     When the soul rises                            

–         In this line the word ‘rises’ is the human quality shown in soul.

–          So, this figure of speech is based on ‘Imagination.’  

5)     In the cool bamboo, 

–         In this line the word ‘cool’ is the human quality shown in bamboo.

–          So, this figure of speech is based on ‘Imagination.’  

 6)     Looking at the sad wreath of tuberoses.

–         In this line the word ‘sad’ is the human quality shown in wreath.

–          So, this figure of speech is based on ‘Imagination.’  

7) The rivers knows                                 

–         In this line the word ‘knows’ is the human quality shown in river.

–          So, this figure of speech is based on ‘Imagination.’  

8)     Small towns grow with anxiety

–         In this line ‘growing with anxiety’ is the human quality shown in small towns.

–          So, this figure of speech is based on ‘Imagination.’  

 Hyperbole

1)     The river has a soul

–         It is an overstatement, so, this figure of speech is based on ‘imagination.’

2)     We all want to walk with the gods.

–         It is an overstatement, so, this figure of speech is based on ‘imagination.’

    Transferred Epithet

1)     In the dreadful silence we wept

–         In this line an epithet (adjective) ‘dreadful’ is transferred from experience to silence.

–         So, this figure of speech is based on ‘association’

2)     Looking at the sad wreath of tuberoses.

–         In this line an epithet (adjective) ‘sad’ is transferred from person to wreath.

–         So, this figure of speech is based on ‘association’

3)     A shrine of happy pictures

–         In this line an epithet (adjective) ‘happy’ is transferred from person to pictures.

–         So, this figure of speech is based on ‘association’

4)     It will walk into the golden east,

–         In this line an epithet (adjective) ‘golden’ is transferred from gold to east.

–         So, this figure of speech is based on ‘association’

 5) In the cool bamboo,

–         In this line an epithet (adjective) ‘cool’ is transferred from climate to bamboo.

–         So, this figure of speech is based on ‘association’

  Metaphor

1)     It will walk into the golden east

–         In this line the golden east is indirectly compared to heaven.

–         So, this figure of speech is based on ‘Resemblance.’

2)     In the dreadful silence we wept

–         In this line dreadful silence is indirectly compared to the curfews.

–         So, this figure of speech is based on ‘Resemblance.’

3)     My hometown lies calmly amidst the trees,

–         In this line the trees are indirectly compared to nature.

–         So, this figure of speech is based on ‘Resemblance.

4)     Seeking a land of fish and stars

–         In this line the land of fish and stars is indirectly compared to a mythical pure land.

–         So, this figure of speech is based on ‘Resemblance.

 Onomatopoeia

1)     Or the wind howling down the gorge.

–         In this line the word ‘howling’ brings out the sound by wind.

–         So, this figure of speech is based on ‘sound’.

Inversion

1)     In the dreadful silence we wept

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is – We wept in the dreadful silence.

–         So, this figure of speech is based on construction.

2)     In the summer it cuts through the land

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is – It cuts through the land in the summer.

–         So, this figure of speech is based on construction.

 Simile

1)     Like a torrent of grief.

–         In these line ‘the river’ is directly compared to ‘ torrent of grief’.

–         So, this figure of speech is based on ‘Resemblance.’

Std 12

SECTION ONE (Prose)

1.1 An Astrologer’s Day     R K Narayan

1.2 On Saying “Please”           Alfred George Gardiner

1.3 The Cop and the Anthem             O’Henry

1.4 Big Data-Big Insights

1.5 The New Dress     Virginia Woolf

1.6 Into the Wild        Kiran Purandare

1.7 Why we Travel      Siddarth Pico Raghavan Iyer

1.8 Voyaging Towards Excellence     Achyut Godbole

SECTION TWO (Poetry)

2.1 Song of the Open Road    Walt Whitman

2.2 Indian Weavers                 Sarojini Naidu

2.3 The Inchcape Rock           Robert Southey

2.4 Have you Earned your Tomorrow            Edgar Guest

2.5 Father Returning Home    Dilip Chitre

2.6 Money       William H. Davies

2.7 She Walks in Beauty         George Gordon Byron

2.8 Small Towns and Rivers   Mamang Dai

Figures of Speech (all poems)

SECTION THREE (Writing Skills)

3.1 Summary Writing

3.2 Do Schools Really Kill Creativity? (Mind-Mapping)

3.3 Note–Making

3.4 Statement of Purpose

3.5 Drafting a Virtual Message

3.6 Group Discussion

SECTION FOUR (Genre-Novel)

4.1 History of Novel

4.2 To Sir, with Love E. R. Braithwaite

4.3 Around the World in Eighty Days           Jules Gabriel Verne

4.4 The Sign of Four   Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle