About the Author:
Alfred George Gardiner (1865 to 1946) was born at Chelmsford in Essex in 1865. He started his literary career as a journalist. At the age of 37, he was appointed editor of the Daily News, London. Under the pseudonym (pen name) ‘Alpha of the Plough’, he made regular contributions to the Daily News, The Manchester Evening News etc. His essays are uniformly elegant, graceful and humorous. ‘The Pillars of Society’, ‘Pebbles on the Shore’, ‘Many Furrows and Leaves in the Wind’ are some of his best known writings. His uniqueness lies in his ability to teach the basic truths of life in an easy and amusing manner. He raised the question of morality in everyday life.
Gist of the lesson:
In, On Saying ‘‘Please’’, he points out the value of good manners in social life and emphasizes the importance of courtesy and politeness in daily behaviour. He shows how polite speech and manner sweeten the atmosphere around and how discourtesy and ill manners spoil or pollute it.
List the words of courtesy that we use in our daily life. Discuss them with your partner and explain the purpose of using each.
Words of courtesy:
Thank You – When we receive something.
Sorry – When we are wrong or when we hurt someone.
Please – When we want something.
You’re welcome – when someone says thank you.
Excuse me – When we want someone to give way.
It’s OK – When someone apologies to us.
Hello, How are you? – When we meet someone.
I’m fine thank you – In reply ‘How are you?’
Listed below are a few character traits of people. Some are positive traits, while others are not. Tick the ones you feel are desirable.
Etiquette and manners are very important for a person to live in the society. Read the following and put them in proper columns.
1. To receive phone calls while you are in a lecture or class.
2. To knock before you enter your Principal’s office.
3. To thank the person who offers you tea or coffee.
4. To be polite and courteous to others.
5. To leave the classroom without the teacher’s permission.
6. To occupy the seats reserved for ladies or physically challenged or elderly people on a bus or a train.
discourtesy : lack of courtesy, rudeness
assault and battery: an attack which includes not only threats but also the actual use of violence
retaliate : do something bad to someone who has done something bad to you
assailant : an attacker legislate: make a law or laws
violence : action or feeling that causes damage, unrest etc.
to box : fight with the fists (closed hands)
Scowl: expression of anger
haughty: having a high opinion of oneself and often a low opinion of others
boorish: rude, uncultured
laceration: (here) a cut or tear
brooding over : thinking anxiously or sadly about something equilibrium: balance bullied: threatened
insolent: very rude
calendar: (here) a calendar of causes arranged for trial in court
black eye: darkened skin around the eye due to injury
Decalogue: The Ten Commandments
intercourse: communication, conversation
ordeal: difficult or painful experience
knave: a dishonest person
coppers : coins of low value
trampled on : crushed under feet
countenance: facial expression
solicitous: caring or concerned
irradiated : (here) spread or produced
uncouth: impolite, unrefined
benediction: a blessing
conciliatory: trying to win friendly feelings
drab: dull, boring
panegyric: a speech or piece of writing to praise someone highly
the poor leech-gatherer: the subject of Wordsworth’s poem ‘Resolution and Independence’ or ‘The Leech Gatherer’
moor: open land on hills
lower than the angels: from Psalm 8:5– ‘Thou hast made him (man) a little lower than the angels, here, it means less than perfect
moral affront: offending
sobtle: polite behaviour
boor: a rude insensitive person
Chesterfield: Lord Chesterfield (1694-1773) English statesman, author and patron of letters.
Guess the meaning:
• redress: solution or compensation for wrong doing
• henpecked: someone controlled by a woman
• black eye: an injured eye
• endorse: express support
• countenance: face
• treading: walking
• assured: to make certain to someone
• moral affront: a deliberate insult
Extra In text Questions:
A lift-man is a person who is in charge of operating a lift.
Explain the sentence:
The pain of a kick on the shins soon passes away but the pain of a wound to our self-respect or our vanity may poison a whole day.
Answer: The physical pain or injury we encounter may soon heal and be forgotten but when our self-respect and pride gets hurt the damage is deep and not easily forgotten. Such an injury stays for a long time and may even spoil our entire day.
Why is it not possible for the law to become the guardian of our private manners?
Answer: Laws are made to make life easy for people to live in society. Laws cannot cover every aspect of human living. Laws cannot interfere into people’s private life.
Every individual has the moral responsibility to live life on their own term and not hurt other’s feeling through their behavior. Private manners are one’s affairs and so the law cannot become their guardian.
How can we keep the machine of life oiled and running sweetly?
Answer: We can keep the machine of life oiled and running sweetly that is our life can move smoothly we are polite and use courtesy in our day to day behaviour.
The public owes to the Underground Railway Company because
Answer: The public owes to the Underground Railway Company because
it not only makes things pleasant for the travelling public, but performs an important social service.
According to the conductor, what are the stale old tricks?
Answer: According to the conductor the stale old tricks are to pretend that you have forgotten your wallet at home when you don’t want to pay for the bus fare.
Which particular experience made the writer comfortable in a bus?
Answer: Once when the author did not have the money to pay for his bus fare, he had expected to be thrown out of the bus. Instead the conductor not only gave him the ticket but also did not give him the address where the author could return the money. A few days later, when the conductor accidently trampled the author’s toe, he apologized to him. After this the author started observing him carefully and found a curious pleasure in the constant good-nature of his bearing. He seemed to have an inexhaustible fund of patience and a gift for making his passengers comfortable. In short, he found that the conductor irradiated such an atmosphere of good-temper and kindliness that a journey with him was a lesson in natural courtesy and good manners.
(A1) (i) Form groups and explain the following words with examples. You can take help of your teacher.
• Humility – not being proud / modest
The sale manager while receiving the award showed humility by giving credit to his team members for the incredible performance.
• Self-esteem – self respect, confidence in one’s own ability
Self – esteem leads to a confident, motivated and successful person.
• Gratitude – being thankful and showing appreciation
You should show gratitude to all the people who help you.
• Courtesy – being polite in one’s attitude
Thank you, please and sorry are the pillars of courtesy.
• Generosity – showing kindness through words or deeds
A mother’s love is an apt example of generosity.
• Sympathy – to feel sorrowful towards someone’s pain.
During the covid pandemic the whole nation came together and sympathized in each others suffering.
• Empathy – to understand and share the feelings of another.
We should not only show empathy towards humans but also towards animals and nature.
(ii) Have a Group Discussion on the topic ‘The need of soft skills at work place’. Use the following points.
(a) Written and verbal communication
(b) Ways of interacting with others
(c) Creative abilities
(d) Emotional intelligence
Evaluator: You’ve all been given a few minutes to think on your topic for today’s group discussion, which is ‘The need of soft skills at work place’. You may now begin the discussion. Who would like to start?
Sonia: In today’s AI driven world, where everything is automated, I think soft skills play an important role in having an edge over others.
Bharati: The education system is doing a wonderful job of preparing students in mastering the subjects in their professional career. But when it comes to teaching communication skills, our education system has failed us miserably.
Yogesh: It is true that communication skill is vital in today’s technology driven world, but to blame the education system is totally wrong. Parents as well as students are blindly running after marks and burning the candle at both ends in the race of scoring the highest marks.
Aakash: Due to lack of communication skills, a person may lose his confidence or may not be able to put forth his view point in a precise manner and thus lose a lot of opportunities in life.
Sara: Blaming the parents and students for running after marks is wrong as we all know that India is a vast country with a huge population and so there has to be some criteria in selecting the candidates. One cannot have a measurement for soft skills and therefore the only yardstick left is that of marks.
Sonia: Coming back to our topic, The World Economic Forum Future of Jobs report suggested that by 2025, complex problem-solving, critical thinking, creativity, people management and emotional intelligence would be among the most important skills required in the workplace.
Sara: In the office one maybe interacting with clients, communicating with colleagues, negotiating your pay check, etc. and outside the office one may have to develop friendship and build networks.
Evaluator: All right, everyone. Your time’s nearly up. Could someone conclude, please?
Aakash: In my opinion, soft skills at the workplace are very important. As the world advances in technology, there will be apps, machines and robots for our hard skills but it is the soft skills like communication and critical thinking that will promote a person towards leadership position.
(A2) (i) Read the text and state whether the following statements are True or False. Correct the False statements.
(a) Bitter problems in day-to-day life can be solved by sweet words. True
(b) Great wars could have been avoided by a little courtesy. True
(c) Observance of etiquette in a normal situation is important but more important is their observance when the situation is adverse. True
(d) Words like ‘please’ and ‘thank you’ help us in making our passage through life uneasy. False
Correct Statement: Words like ‘please’ and ‘thank you’ help us in making our passage through life easy.
(e) The law permits anybody to use violence, if another person is discourteous. False
Correct Statement: The law does not permit anybody to use violence, if another person is discourteous.
(ii) Select the most appropriate sentences which suggest the theme of the essay.
(a) The essay tells us about courtesy, civility, morality, responsibility and control.
(b) The essay explores the difficulties that can be incurred by an individual when dealing with the public.
(c) One can keep one’s peace of mind without having to lower themselves to the level of the perceived offender.
(d) People with low self-esteem are generally difficult to work with and they look down upon others to get a feeling of superiority.
(a) The essay tells us about courtesy, civility, morality, responsibility and control.
(c) One can keep one’s peace of mind without having to lower themselves to the level of the
(iii) (a) Find the reasons for the liftman’s uncivilized behaviour.
Answer: It is probable that the lift-man was much more acutely hurt by what he regarded as a slur upon his social standing.
(b) List the people and their behaviour that made the passenger rude and ill- mannered.
housemaid → cook → employer’s wife → employer → passenger → lift-man – lift–man’s wife
(iv) Good manners are required in our daily life for making our social contacts more cooperative and friendly. Illustrate the behaviour of the polite conductor with different people in various situations.
|1. The writer’s sensitive toe was trampled on
|The conductor said sorry with an apology and courtesy.
|2. In the rainy season dealing with people
|He would run up the stairs to give someone the tip that there was “room inside”.
|3. Dealing with old people
|He was as considerate as a son.
|4. Dealing with children
|He was as solicitous as a father.
|5. Dealing with young people
|He always indulged in some merry jest with them.
|6. Dealing with a blind man
|He would ask the driver to wait while he took the blindman across the road or round the corner or otherwise safely on his way.
(v) Discuss and write the impact of good temper and kindliness on society in the light of the good-mannered conductor.
Answer: Good manners are as infectious as bad manners. The bus conductor irradiated such an atmosphere of good-temper and kindliness that a journey with him was a lesson in natural courtesy and good manners. It was always fine weather on the polite conductor’s bus, and his own civility, his conciliatory address and good-humoured bearing, infected his passengers. In lightening their spirits he lightened his own task. His gaiety was not a wasteful luxury, but a sound investment.
(vi) ‘A modest calling can be made dignified by good temper and kindly feeling’. Explain the statement with examples.
However lowly a person’s job could be, he can make it dignified and respectful by his own cheerful manners and good temper. If the person himself radiates humour and kindness then others too will reciprocate with respect and dignity. We have so many people who render their service from morn to night be it the cab driver, the maid, the sweeper, the peon, etc. If all these people carry on their work with a cheerful smile, they will not only spread happiness in others lives but at the same time make their laborious work seem light.
(vii) The service of the police is necessary for the implementation of law in our society. Do you think you require this service for a good social environment? Discuss and write.
Answer: It is true that the service of the police is necessary to keep away crime from society and make the citizens feel safe, but requiring their service to keep a check on people’s civilities is taking things too far. While it is true that there is no law that compels us to say “Please”, there is a social practice much older and much more sacred than any law which enjoins us to be civil. And the first requirement of civility is that we should acknowledge a service. “Please” and “Thank you” are the small change with which we pay our ways as social beings. They are the little courtesies by which we keep the machine of life oiled and running sweetly.
(A3) (i) • He committed the crime in broad daylight (not bright daylight or narrow darkness).
I had a cup of strong tea (not rich tea).
• The fast train is coming (not quick train).
Such words or group of words which habitually occur together and thereby convey meaning by association are called collocations. A collocation is a combination of words in a language that often go together.
(a) Find out the words in column ‘B’ which collocate with the words in column ‘A’.
(b) Learning collocations is essential for making your English sound fluent and natural. Make the following collocations and use them in your own sentences.
- It was a big mistake of going to an unknown restaurant, as the food was very bad.
- Rohan got a big surprise from his father on his 21st birthday.
- I made a big decision when I took a gap year after my graduation.
- Scoring such low marks was a big disappointment for Rahul’s parents.
- Getting the first pay check of Rs. 50000 was a big deal for Mr. Bharat.
- It was quite overwhelming for Sonia to move to a big city from a small town.
- There was a big improvement in Ron’s writing skills after putting so much of effort.
- Entering the competition was a big challenge for Raj, but if accepted it anyway.
(2) WELL :
- The well-dressed man turned out to be a criminal.
- The little boy was praised for his well mannered behaviour at the party.
- All the members of that family are well educated.
- They deserved the trophy as all of them well played.
- You have a well equipped kitchen.
- The room was very well decorated for the party.
- The teacher liked her well written essay.
- After a year Sonia has now well adjusted to her city life.
(ii) Sometimes while using a word in a sentence, we have to change its word class. we can make several more words from the root word.
we can make several new words from the root word.
I asked Sumit to ……………. my pencil for me. (sharp).
I asked Sumit to sharpen my pencil for me.
Now read the following sentences and use the words given in the brackets. Change the word class and rewrite the sentences.
(a) Leena was eating a very …………. apple and obviously enjoying it. (crunch)
(b) This picture looks …………… (colour)
(c) I’m afraid that your behaviour is just not ……………. (accept)
(d) I like my elder brother. He is very ……………. (help)
(a) Leena was eating a very crunchy apple and obviously enjoying it.
(b) This picture looks colourful.
(c) I’m afraid that your behaviour is just not acceptable.
(d) I like my elder brother. He is very helpful.
Complete the following table. Put a cross if a word class does not exist.
(iii) Register often refers to the degree of formality of language, but in a more general sense it means the language used by a group of people who share similar work or interest, such as doctors or lawyers.
Imagine that your Principal or teacher is coming. When you meet him, you would never say,
‘Hey, dude ! What’s up?’
This is a formal situation, so you would say ‘Good morning, Sir’.
In every situation, you use an appropriate expression according to the person. The language you use, when you talk to someone depends on his/her age, position etc. There are formal and informal registers in spoken and written language.
Write appropriate expressions and words you have to use while facing an interview :
(a) May I come in?
(b) Good Morning
(c) I am sorry. Would you please repeat the question?
(d) May I have a seat?
(e) Thank you.
You are writing a letter of complaint. List the proper expressions that you would like to write.
- I disagree.
- I’m sorry to say this but….
- There seems to be a problem with….
- Sorry to bother you……
- I am upset about……….
(iv) Distinguish between a legal offence and a moral offence on the basis of the extract.
|assault and battery
|kick on the shin
|laceration of one’s feelings
(v) Find out the meanings of the following phrases. Use them in your own sentences. (a) give and take (b) a black eye (c) lower than the angels (d) knock someone down
give and take
give and take: an exchange of ideas, statements, goods and produce.
sentence: In every friendship there has to be some give and take.
a black eye
A black eye: skin around the eye that has gone dark because it has been hit.
sentence: He had a fight at school and came home with a black eye.
Lower than the angels
Lower than the angels: less than perfect
sentence: The employees in Raj’s firm are lower than angels as they are seldom motivated to perform their duties.
knock someone down
knock someone down: to strike someone and cause them to fall to the ground.
sentence: The policeman warned the kids that if they run in the middle of the road, a vehicle might knock someone down.
(vi) Find out the words with prefixes and suffixes from the text and write them down.
(vi) Complete the table with polite expressions that we must use in our day-to-day life:
|I want a cup of tea.
|I would like to have a cup of tea.
|Send me the mail.
|Please send me the mail.
|Go away or leave me alone.
|Please let me alone
|You are wrong.
|You are incorrect.
|That’s a bad idea.
|That is not a good idea.
|Your work isn’t good.
|Your work needs some improvement.
(A4) (i) Edit the given paragraph using a/ an/the wherever necessary:
Rakesh is a/an ideal son who remains devoted to his father as he grows professionally to become a/the famous doctor. As his father grows old, he takes care to spend time with his father, bringing him tea in a/the morning and taking him out for a/the walk in an/the evening.
Rakesh is an ideal son who remains devoted to his father as he grows professionally to become a famous doctor. As his father grows old, he takes care to spend time with his father, bringing him tea in the morning and taking him out for a walk in the evening.
(ii) Spot the errors in each of the following sentences and correct the incorrect ones:
(a) Radha brought pens and distributed them between her five children.
Answer: Radha bought pens and distributed them among her five children.
(b) Jayshree and Sujata sat besides each other in complete silence.
Answer: Jayshree and Sujata sat beside each other in complete silence.
(c) His best friend Vijay was blind within one eye.
Answer: His best friend Vijay was blind in one eye.
(d) One could dare to encroach on his rights.
Answer: One could not dare to encroach on his rights.
(e) She was taken with surprise when she saw the famous Taj Mahal.
Answer: She was taken by surprise when she saw the famous Taj Mahal.
(f) It is not possible to exchange the goods once the sale has been completed.
Answer: It is not possible to exchange goods once the sale has been completed, (‘the’ is deleted.)
(g) Dr. Sengupta has been trying to master the craft for the last five years.
Answer: No error in this sentence.
(h) The top-ranking candidates will be appointed in senior jobs in banks.
Answer: The top-ranking candidates will be appointed | to senior jobs in banks.
(i) She knows very well what is expected from her but she is unable to perform.
Answer: She knows very well what is expected of her but she is unable to perform.
(j) They will put on a note in this regard for your consideration.
Answer: They will put up a note in this regard for your consideration.
(iii) Read the following.
Santosh purchased a computer. He read the operating manual and followed the instructions.
(a) He linked the monitor, keyboard and printer.
(b) He plugged in the main cable.
(c) He switched on the monitor at the back.
(d) When the light appeared on the screen, he placed the Day Disk in Drive A.
(e) He pushed in the disk until the button clicked out.
(It took about 30 seconds for the computer to load the program.)
(f) He pressed the Drive button and the disk shot out.
(g) He replaced the Day Disk with the Document Disk.
(h) He pressed function key 7.
Convert these sentences into passive voice by filling in the blanks.
Firstly the monitor, keyboard and printer were linked up. Then the main cable was plugged in. The monitor was switched on at the back. When the light appeared on the screen, the Day Disk was placed in Drive A. The disk was pushed in until the button clicked out. It took the computer 30 seconds to load the program. The drive button was pressed and the disk shot out. The Day Disk was replaced with the Document Disk. Finally, the function key 7 was pressed. The word processor was then ready to use.
(A5) (i) Write a speech on ‘Courtesy is the light of life’ with the help of the following points.
(a) People have a good impression of you.
(b) You will be acknowledged and appreciated by all.
(c) You will he happier and contented with life.
Courtesy is the light of life
Good morning, Honourable Principal, respected teachers and my dear friends.
The topic of my speech today is, ‘Courtesy is the light of life’. Courtesy means good manners and polite behaviour. It is said that politeness costs nothing and gains everything. By being polite we can gain the love and respect of everyone around. It enhances our personality and gives us self confidence.
Developing the habit of politeness and courteous behaviour will lead us to a stress free life as we do not have to worry about hurting others. A courteous person is loved by all. People want to be associated with such a person. People will want to talk and share their problems with a polite person. This in turn may convert that person towards being a leader and solving others’ problems.
The behaviour of a courteous person could have a ripple effect and others too would want to imitate him. He becomes a role model to all around him, which may lead to a tolerant and peaceful society and nation.
Courtesy and politeness should not be a forced action but should come automatically. A genuine person will never put on an act of being kind and polite. So in order to develop such a personality, one should start right away in practicing daily little acts of kindness and make this place a heaven on earth.
(ii) ‘Manners maketh man’ – Expand the idea in your own words with proper examples.
Manners maketh man
Manners distinguish man from other animals on this planet. It is good manners that build a person’s character and personality. Such a person gains respect in society. Words like ‘Please, Thank You and Sorry’ are ornaments which all must carry always.
A well mannered person is liked by all. Inculcating good manners costs nothing but gains everything.
Even in a crowd a person who shows a bit of kindness gains immense love and respect from everyone around. Take for example, a person who offers his seat in a crowded bus is looked up with great respect. Such a person feels proud and confident of himself.
A person who is polite, kind and soft spoken is liked by all. Everyone wants to be associated with him. They would like to interact and share their problems with him. Such a person, down the line may even develop leadership qualities and thus progress in all walks of like.
Therefore it is very important to develop and teach the younger generation the art and skill of good manners. So that in future we may have peace and harmony in the society, nation and the world.
(A6) (i) Read A. G. Gardiner’s essay “The Open Window’ and compare its theme with the essay ‘On Saying “Please.”
In the essay of “The Open Window” we know that though the hen pecked husband knew that the right thing to do was to close the window yet he was afraid of his wife. Here we see the wife not showing any courtesy or moral behaviour and acting stubborn y not closing the window. The same is reflected in “On Saying Please” where the both the lift-man and the person thrown out of the lift don’t show any respect towards their fellow human beings. Each one has his own ego at stack.
(ii) ‘Nothing clears up my spirits like a fine day’ – Keats.
Collect information of the poet Keats and write it in your notebook.
John Keats (31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821) was an English poet of the second generation of Romantic poets, with Lord Byron and Percy Bysshe Shelley, although his poems had been in publication for less than four years when he died of tuberculosis at the age of 25. They were indifferently received in his lifetime, but his fame grew rapidly after his death. By the end of the century, he was placed in the canon of English literature, strongly influencing many writers of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood; the Encyclopedia Britannica of 1888 called one ode “one of the final masterpieces”. Jorge Luis Borges named his first encounter with Keats an experience he felt all his life. Keats had a style “heavily loaded with sensualities”, notably in the series of odes. Typically of the Romantics, he accentuated extreme emotion through natural imagery. Today his poems and letters remain among the most popular and analysed in English literature – in particular “Ode to a Nightingale”, “Ode on a Grecian Urn”, “Sleep and Poetry” and the sonnet “On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer”. (source: Wikipedia)
(A7) (i) Soft skills are required in all walks of life including careers and industries. They are increasingly becoming the essential skills of today’s workforce. Soft skills are an integral part of finding, attracting and retaining clients also. Highly developed presentation skills, networking abilities, and etiquette awareness can help you win new clients and gain more work. The following are considered the most important soft skills.
(ii) Following are some of the institutions where you will get the courses related to soft skills.
(a) Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, Gujarat
(b) Indian School of Business Management, Hyderabad
(c) XLRI – Xavier School of Management, Jamshedpur
(d) Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, New Delhi
Jobs available at –
- Customer service centre
- Management schools
- Hotel industry, etc.
SECTION ONE (Prose)
1.3 The Cop and the Anthem O’Henry
1.4 Big Data-Big Insights
1.5 The New Dress Virginia Woolf
1.6 Into the Wild Kiran Purandare
1.7 Why we Travel Siddarth Pico Raghavan Iyer
1.8 Voyaging Towards Excellence Achyut Godbole
SECTION TWO (Poetry)
2.3 The Inchcape Rock Robert Southey
2.4 Have you Earned your Tomorrow Edgar Guest
2.5 Father Returning Home Dilip Chitre
2.6 Money William H. Davies
2.7 She Walks in Beauty George Gordon Byron
2.8 Small Towns and Rivers Mamang Dai
SECTION THREE (Writing Skills)
3.1 Summary Writing
3.2 Do Schools Really Kill Creativity? (Mind-Mapping)
3.4 Statement of Purpose
3.5 Drafting a Virtual Message
3.6 Group Discussion
SECTION FOUR (Genre-Novel)
4.2 To Sir, with Love E. R. Braithwaite
4.3 Around the World in Eighty Days Jules Gabriel Verne
4.4 The Sign of Four Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle