Class 12 Yuvakbharathi 2.1 Song of the open road

Song of the Open Road

Song of the Open Road Walt Whitman

Song of the Open Road Summary

Song of the Open Road Questions and answers

Song of the Open Road Ice Breaker

Song of the Open Road Brainstorming

Song of the Open Road extra questions

Song of the Open Road Paraphrasing

Song of the Open Road Appreciation of the poem

Std 12 Poem Song of the open road

Song of the Open Road – Walt Whitman

Afoot and light-hearted I take to the open road,

Healthy, free, the world before me,

The long brown path before me leading wherever I choose.

Henceforth I ask not good-fortune, I myself am good-fortune,

Henceforth I whimper no more, postpone no more, need nothing,

Done with indoor complaints, libraries, querulous criticisms,

Strong and content I travel the open road.

The earth, that is sufficient,

I do not want the constellations any nearer,

I know they are very well where they are,

I know they suffice for those who belong to them.

(Still here I carry my old delicious burdens,

I carry them, men and women,

I carry them with me wherever I go,

I swear it is impossible for me to get rid of them,

I am fill’d with them, and I will fill them in return.)

Meaning

1. Afoot- going on foot, walking, in motion

2. brown path- bare land

3. postpone- to stop for a few days 

4. suffice- enough, adequate, sufficient

5. delicious burdens(here)- sweet memories of the past

6. whimper – low voice of cry or agony, unhappiness, sadness

7. querulous – argumentative, complaining 

8. constellations – Here it means group, collection, gathering of people 

9. light-hearted – cheerful, care-free

10.take to – begin

Paraphrase:

Song of the Open Road’ from ‘Leaves of Grass’, is a beautiful blend of self-awareness, free will and tenderness of heart. It gives us poet’s realization that along the journey of life one will face a test of wisdom which is not tested in any school or university. A road is something everyone uses, whether rich or poor and it forces all levels of people to associate with one another. The road signifies ‘mobility.’ One can take the road as a point to start over towards something new. Whitman talks about the people and places. He argues against staying in one place for too long, although the hospitality may be true. Here is what the poet says

I take to the open road with a light and carefree spirit. Feeling healthy and free, with the world at my feet. The long, winding path ahead of me leading wherever I desire. I no longer seek good fortune, for I am good fortune itself. I will no longer whine or delay, needing nothing. Leaving behind my indoor complaints and critical judgments, I am strong and satisfied as I travel the open road. The earth is all I need. I do not desire the constellations to be closer, I am aware that they are perfectly situated where they are, I understand that they are sufficient for those who are connected to them. (Despite this, I continue to carry my old, delightful burdens, I carry them with me wherever I go, men and women, I swear that it is impossible for me to get rid of them, I am filled with them, and I will fill others with them in return.)

Summary / Explanation    

This poem is a celebration of the freedom and joy of travel, and a declaration of independence from the constraints of society. The speaker takes to the open road with a light and carefree spirit, feeling healthy and free with the world at their feet. The long, winding path ahead represents the journey of life and the opportunities that it brings.

The speaker declares that he is no longer reliant on good fortune, and that he himself is good fortune. he also vows to stop complaining, delaying, or needing anything, and to leave behind their indoor complaints and critical judgments. Instead, he embraces the open road with strength and contentment.

The speaker also reflects on the earth and their connection to it. He appreciates the earth’s abundance and does not desire anything more, such as the constellations. He recognizes that the constellations are sufficient for those who belong to them, but the speaker carries his own “old delicious burdens” with him wherever he goes. These burdens may represent the experiences and lessons of life that shape the individual, and the speaker seems to accept them as part of his identity. Overall, the poem is a tribute to the freedom and adventure of travel and the power of the individual to shape his own destiny.

ICE BREAKERS

Choose the mode of travel that you would like the most for a journey.

(a) Airways (b) Waterways (c) Railways (d) Roadways

Answer: I would like to choose roadways for the following reasons.

(a) By road, we can travel through the interior of any place.

(b) We can stop over at any place and at any time and enjoy the beauty of the place to the fullest.

(c) We can have our own schedule and we do not have to rush through a fixed time table.

Discuss with your partner, the preparations you would like to make for the journey chosen.

I would make the following preparations for the journey by roadways:

(a) I would carry adequate amount of clothes and toiletries.

(b) I would carry some light food items, snacks and adequate amount of water.

(c) I would ensure that the vehicle has GPS system to easily navigate through the interiors of any place.

(d) I would also make the hotel reservations well in advance to avoid any inconvenience later.

(e) I would make sure to carry my mobile phone, charger, power bank, etc.  

Discuss the ways in which you would overcome the problems/ hindrances/ difficulties you face during your journey.

(a) I will see that there is a spare tyre.

(b) I will see that my internet is charged and has a good network connection.

(c) I will see that we keep up with the schedule and are not late at any of the planned destinations.

(d) I will also ensure that I have a good collection of songs to listen to while travelling.

During every journey we have to observe certain rules. Discuss your ideas of the journey without any restrictions. You can begin like this-

(a) I would like to go with selected friends as I love the company of others.

(b) I would love to explore new places.

(c) I would try my best to be as close to nature as possible.

(d) I would choose destinations which has culture, food and lifestyle different from my own.

BRAINSTORMING

(A1) (i) Pick out the lines showing that the poet is prepared to enjoy every moment of his journey.

Answer: 

Afoot and light-hearted I take to the open road,

Healthy, free, the world before me,

Henceforth I ask not good-fortune, I myself am good-fortune,

Henceforth I whimper no more, postpone no more, need nothing, v. Strong and content I travel the open road.

(ii) By ‘old delicious burdens’ the poet means-

(a) the luggage

(b) the food he carries

(c) the stress he bears during the travels

(d) sweet memories of the past

Answer: (d) sweet memories of the past

(iii) The poet is a person who is free from all inhibitions. Discuss how the concept of ‘freedom’ is expressed in the poem.

Answer:

The poet begins by saying that he is light hearted, healthy and free as he starts his trip. The poet does not carry any mental burden when he embarks on this journey of life. He further states that he is done with complaints and so he wants to travel with an open mind and the earth will satisfy his needs. He also states that he does want to be associated with any of the famous people as he knows that they are happy where they are. He wants to take life’s journey all alone. However, he carries with him the fond memories of his loved ones which will keep him company during his journey.

(A2) (i) Following are the activities of the poet related to his journey on the road. Divide them into two parts as ‘activities the poet will practise’ and ‘activities he will not practise’.

(a) Walking along the road though he does not know where it reaches

(b) Complaining about the discomforts during the journey

(c) Postponing the journey

(d) Praying for good fortune

(e) Carrying the fond memories of the good people

(f) Creating contacts with famous and influential people

(g) Striving to achieve high and bright success

(h) Reflecting and developing his own ‘self’

Answer: 

Activities the poet will practice:

e. Carrying the fond memories of the good people

h. Reflecting and developing his own ‘self’

Activities the poet will not practise:

a. Walking along the road though he does not know where it reaches

b. Complaining about the discomforts during the journey

c. Postponing the journey

d. Praying for good fortune

f. Creating contacts with famous and influential people

g. Striving to achieve high and bright success. 

(ii) Write down the traits the poet exhibits through following lines. One is done for you.

(a) Henceforth, I ask for no good fortune-I myself am good fortune – Self-confidence

(b) Henceforth, I whimper no more, postpone no more, need nothing – Determination and Positivity

(c) I do not want the constellations any nearer – Contentment

(d) I swear it is impossible for me to get rid of them – Genuineness

(e) I am filled with them – I will fill them in return- Inter-dependence

(iii) ‘Healthy, free, the world before me’. Express your views regarding the above line.

Answer:

In the line ‘Healthy, free, the world before me’, the poet is telling us that the road is healthy, which means that the road is a new one, which has not been travelled much. He means that he is embarking on a path which has not taken by many people. He also means that this path is full of new opportunities for him to choose.

The poet also says that the road is free. Here he could mean that the path is free of all prejudices and obstacles. He has the freedom to traverse on this path without any hurdles.

The poet continues with the words ’the world before me’ which means that he does not have to travel on a particular set path. He has a choice of travelling by taking any path he wants to without anyone stopping him. This line is full of  motivation and hope and paints a bright picture.

(A3) The poet has used many describing words such as ‘healthy’ in this poem. Make a list and classify them as –

Answer:

a. For the world: free, healthy

b. For himself: afoot, light-hearted, strong, content

c. For the road: long, brown, open

(A4) (i) Read the expression ‘old delicious burdens.’ A burden cannot be delicious. The poet has used this combination of words to express that he has many sweet memories of the people and places which he would like to remember forever. The poet has used seemingly contradictory expressions to convey the meaning that his heart is full of sweet memories of good and kind people. Though he wants to be free from any type of attachment, he wants to cherish these sweet memories in his heart forever.

The expression contains opposite ideas that make it seem absurd or unlikely, although it may be true. This is called ‘Paradox.’

(ii) The road in the poem does not mean only the road to travel. The poet wants to suggest the road of life. Explain the metaphor with the help of the poem.

Answer: The road in the poem signifies mobility. It has a literary as well as metaphorical meaning. Figuratively it means the journey of life and the path (career) we choose. The whole world is before him that is; he has ample opportunities before him. The path is healthy and free which means that he has the freedom to choose any path he wants. The road ahead also does not have any obstacles and so he can travel without any inhibitions and set prejudices. He The poem is motivational and inspiring to all those who read it.

(iii) Free Verse: Free Verse is a poetry that does not rhyme or have a regular rhythm. The features of Free Verse are-

It is a literary device that is free from limitations of regular metre or rhythm, does not rhyme with fixed forms, and still it provides an artistic expression. In this way, the poet can give his own shape to a poem as he desires and can use various poetic devices to create the effect he considers suitable for the piece.

As Free Verse gives greater freedom for choosing words and conveying their meanings to readers, it is free from artificiality of a typical poetic expression. This technique is commonly used in modern poetry.

Remember –

(a) Although Free Verse requires no metre, rhyme or other traditional poetic techniques, it is the use of internal pattern of sounds, the choice of exact words and their chosen places are the factors which attribute the Free Verse, its lyrical or rhythmic beauty.

(b) Free Verse is completely different from ‘Blank Verse’ which essentially has to occur in iambic pentameter. Blank verse is poetry written with regular metrical but unrhymed lines. It is described as ‘the most common’ form of English poetry which has been influential since the 16th century.

(iv) There are certain words that are repeated in the poem.

For example, ‘no more’ (Line 7).

Find out other similar expressions. Explain the effect they have created in the poem.

Answer:

Repetition is seen in lines 5 to 8 with words ‘henceforth’ and ‘good-fortune’ and in lines 13 to 20 with the personal pronoun ‘I’.

Repetition, as a figure of speech, stress and emphasises on a word or phrase and imparts poetic effect.

(v) The use of personal pronoun ‘I’ is evident and prominent in this poem. Give reasons.

Answer: 

The poet uses the personal pronoun ‘I’ to stress on the point that he himself feels and experiences the all that he is conveying through the poem. He lays a strong emphasis on the idea that he wants to live a carefree life. On his own terms and conditions.

(A5) (i) With the help of the following points, write a poetic appreciation of the poem ‘Song of the Open Road’.

• About the poem / poet and the title

• The theme

• Poetic style

• The language/ poetic devices used in the poem

• Special features

• Message, values, morals in the poem

• Your opinion about the poem

Answer:

Point wise appreciation:

About the poet:

Walt Whitman (1819 to 1892) was an American poet, essayist and journalist. Whitman is among the most influential poets in the American canon and is often called ‘The Father of Free Verse.’ He grew up in Huntington in a family with difficult economic status. His major work ‘Leaves of Grass’ was published in July 1855. His ‘O Captain! My Captain!’, a poem written on the death of Abraham Lincoln, is widely popular.

Theme of the poem:

The theme of the poem is freedom. Throughout the poem the poet encourages us to live our life on our own terms and conditions without any care or worry.

Title:

In the title of the poem the poet has used the word ‘song’ which is relevant to the theme which is to be carefree and enjoy the journey of life.

Poetic Style:

The poem is of four stanzas. The poem is in free verse, unrhymed and does not follow any rhythm and therefore has a universal appeal.

Poetic Devices:

There are many poetic devices used in the poem such as metaphor, paradox, climax, inversion, etc.

The poem also contains a lot of repetition which is used to lay emphases on specific words and phrases. For example the poet has used the pronoun ‘I’ at many places in the poem which stress on the idea that the poet himself is talking about his own experience.

Special Feature:

The poem is in free verse and is in a narrative style. The poet himself is speaking and is a kind of monologue. The audience feels connected with the poem because of its narrative style.

Message, values, morals in the poem:

It gives us poet’s realization that along the journey of life one will face a test of wisdom which is not tested in any school or university. The road signifies mobility and progress so the poet encourages us to move ahead in the journey of life and not be stagnated at one place.

Your opinion about the poem:

The is a motivational and inspiring poem to always look ahead and continue the journey of life without any care or worry.

Appreciation of the poem Song of the Open Road

Song of the open Road is written by Walt Whitman, an American poet, essayist and journalist.

The theme of the poem is freedom. Throughout the poem the poet encourages us to live our life on our own terms and conditions without any care or worry.

In the title of the poem the poet has used the word ‘song’ which is relevant to the theme which is to be carefree and enjoy the journey of life.

The poem is of four stanzas. The poem is in free verse, unrhymed and does not follow any rhythm and therefore has a universal appeal.

There are many poetic devices used in the poem such as metaphor, paradox, climax, inversion, etc.

The poem also contains a lot of repetition which is used to lay emphases on specific words and phrases. For example the poet has used the pronoun ‘I’ at many places in the poem which stress on the idea that the poet himself is talking about his own experience.

The poem is in free verse and is in a narrative style. The poet himself is speaking and is a kind of monologue. The audience feels connected with the poem because of its narrative style.

It gives us poet’s realization that along the journey of life one will face a test of wisdom which is not tested in any school or university. The road signifies mobility and progress so the poet encourages us to move ahead in the journey of life and not be stagnated at one place.

It is a motivational and inspiring poem which gives us the message to always look ahead and continue the journey of life without any care or worry.

(ii) Write four to six lines of Free Verse on the topic ‘The road that leads to my college’. Express that it is the road to knowledge and bright future. You may begin like this: Every day I tread with the bag of books

Answer:

The road that leads to my college;

I can see my bright future through knowledge.

And so I trod on it every day;

In the hope of a great life someday.

This road has many hurdles I know;

Undaunted I move on very fast never slow.

(iii) Write a blog on the following topic.

(a) Man is free by birth.

The concept of “man is free by birth” suggests that all humans are born with the inherent right to freedom and autonomy. This belief is rooted in the idea that all individuals are equal and deserving of respect and dignity, regardless of their circumstances or background. All individuals are born with certain inalienable rights, including the right to freedom and liberty. The principle of man’s innate freedom has been central to many philosophical and political movements throughout history, and has been used to justify a wide range of civil liberties and human rights. Certain rights are inherent to all humans and cannot be taken away by any external force, such as the state or government. At its core, the belief in man’s natural freedom is recognition of the inherent value and worth of each individual, and a call to respect and protect the autonomy of all people. The belief in the inherent freedom of all individuals is a cornerstone of many political and philosophical ideologies, including democracy and liberalism. It is often argued that the recognition and protection of individual freedom is essential for a just and fair society.

(iv) Expand the ideas suggested in the following lines:

(a) All roads lead to Rome.

“All roads lead to Rome” is an idiom that means that there are many different paths or approaches that can lead to the same destination. This phrase is often used to suggest that there are multiple ways to achieve a goal or solve a problem. It is thought to have originated in ancient Rome, where the city was a hub of trade and communication and was connected by a network of roads that stretched out in all directions. The saying is often used as a metaphor for the idea that there are many different paths that can lead to success or fulfillment. It can also be interpreted as a reminder that sometimes it is more important to focus on the end result rather than getting caught up in the details or specific methods of achieving it. The saying is still used today to encourage people to consider different options and approaches to a problem, and to remind them that there is often more than one way to achieve a desired outcome.

(b) A man without liberty is a body without a soul.

The saying “A man without liberty is a body without a soul” suggests that liberty, or freedom, is an essential aspect of a human existence. It implies that without the ability to make one’s own choices and decisions, a person is reduced to nothing more than a shell or an empty vessel, lacking the ability to truly live and thrive. The idea that liberty is closely tied to the human soul or spirit is a common theme in many philosophical and political ideologies, and is often used to argue for the importance of protecting individual freedom and autonomy. It also implies that freedom is a fundamental human right, and that the ability to make choices and decisions for oneself is crucial for a person’s well-being and happiness. It suggests that without liberty, a person is not truly alive, but is rather a mere shadow of their true self. Without the ability to make one’s own choices and decisions, an individual is not truly alive and lacks the ability to fully engage with the world around them. Overall, the saying highlights the importance of freedom and the need to defend and protect it.

(A6) (i) Take help from the sources available on the internet and make a list of proverbs and quotations about ‘road.’

Answer:

(i) The only impossible journey is the one you never began.- Tony Robbins

(ii) Some beautiful paths can be discovered without getting lost – Erol Ozan

(iii) Only those who risk going too far can possible find out how far they can go. – TS Eliot

(iv) Not knowing where I am going is what inspires me to travel it. – Rosallia De Crasto

(v) Roads were made for journeys and not destinations – Confucius

(ii) Read the poem ‘The Road Not Taken’ by Robert Frost.

The Road Not Taken

Two roads diverged in a yellow wood,

And sorry I could not travel both

And be one traveller, long I stood

And looked down one as far as I could

To where it bent in the undergrowth;

Then took the other, as just as fair,

And having perhaps the better claim,

Because it was grassy and wanted wear;

Though as for that the passing there

Had worn them really about the same

And both that morning equally lay

In leaves no step had trodden black.

Oh, I kept the first for another day!

Yet knowing how way leads on to way,

I doubted if I should ever come back.

I shall be telling this with a sigh

Somewhere ages and ages hence :

Two roads diverged in a wood, and I –

I took the one less travelled by,

And that has made all the difference.

                                                – Robert Frost

FIGURES OF SPEECH

           2.1    SONG OF THE OPEN ROAD

Alliteration

 1)    The long brown path before me leading wherever I choose

–         In this line ‘l’ sound is repeated.

–         So this figure of speech based on ‘sound.’

2)    Henceforth I whimper no more, postpone no more, need nothing,                                                    

–         In this line ‘n’ sound is repeated.

–         So this figure of speech based on ‘sound.’

3)    Done with indoor complaints, libraries, querulous criticisms, 

–         In this line ‘k’ sound is repeated.

–         So this figure of speech based on ‘sound.’

 Repetition

 1)      Henceforth I ask not good-fortune, I myself am good-fortune,

–         In this line the word ‘good-fortune’ is repeated.

–         So this figure of speech based on ‘construction.’

2)      Henceforth I whimper no more, postpone no more, need nothing,

–         In this line the words ‘no & more’ are repeated.

–         So this figure of speech based on ‘construction.’

3)      I know they are very well where they are,

–         In this line the words ‘they & are’ are repeated.

–         So this figure of speech based on ‘construction.’

4)      I carry them, men and women, I carry them with me wherever I go,

–         In this line the words ‘carry & them’ are repeated.

–         So this figure of speech based on ‘construction.’

5)      I am fill’d with them, and I will fill them in return.

–         In this line the words ‘fill & them’ are repeated.

–         So this figure of speech based on ‘construction.’

 Inversion

1)    Afoot and light-hearted I take to the open road,

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is –

–         I take to the open road afoot and light-hearted.

–         So this figure of speech based on construction.

2)    Healthy, free, the world before me,

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is –

–         The world before me healthy, free.

–         So this figure of speech based on construction.

3)    The long brown path before me leading wherever I choose.

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is –

–         Wherever I choose the long brown path before me leading,

–         So this figure of speech based on construction.

4)    Strong and content I travel the open road.

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is –

–         I travel the open road strong and content.

–         So this figure of speech based on construction.

5)    I know they are very well where they are,

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is –

–         Where they are I know they are very well,

–         So this figure of speech based on construction.

6)    Still here I carry my old delicious burdens,

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is –

–         I carry, still here my old delicious burdens.

–         So this figure of speech based on construction.

7)    I carry them, men and women, I carry them with me wherever I go,

–         Element order is changed for poetic impact

–         Correct order is –

–         Wherever I go, I carry them with me, I carry them, men and women,

–         So this figure of speech based on construction.

Paradox

1)      Still here I carry my old delicious burdens,

–         The opposite words ‘delicious and burdens’ have been brought together with the sense of sarcasm.

–         So this figure of speech based on ‘difference or contrast.’

 Climax

 1)    Done with indoor complaints, libraries, querulous criticisms,

–         In this line ideas are arranged in ascending order.

–         So this figure of speech based on ‘difference or contrast.’

2)    Henceforth I whimper no more, postpone no more, need nothing,

–         In this line ideas are arranged in ascending order.

–         So this figure of speech based on ‘difference or contrast.’

Tautology

1) Done with indoor complaints, libraries, querulous criticism…..

– ‘Complaint and Querulous’ expresses the same meanings.

Metaphor

1) Still here……..burdens 

– Old sweet memories are indirectly compared to something delicious.

Personification

1)Song of the road

– Non-living objects on the road are shown singing.

A. Answer these questions:

1. How does the poet take to the open road?

Ans: Afoot and lighthearted the poet take to the open road.

2. How does the poet describe the path in the first stanza?

Ans: The poet describe the path as a long brown path in the first stanza.

3. What are the some of the things that the poet says he is done with as he takes at the open road?

Ans : Indoor complaints, libraries and querulous criticisms are some of the things that the poet says he has done with as he takes at the open road.

4. What does the poet say about constellation?

Ans: He do not want the constellation any nearer. He knows they are very well where they are and he knows that they are adequate for those who belong to them.

5. What does the poet still carry? What else does he say about them?

Ans: The poet still carries old delicious burdens. He says it is impossible for him to get rid of them. He is filled with them and he will fill them in return.

B. Answer the following with reference to the context:

1. Henceforth I ask not for good fortune , I myself am good-fortune, Henceforth I whimper no more, postpone no more, need nothing,

a) What do you think the poet means by ‘ I myself am good -fortune’?

Ans: The poet means that he is well content . he does not want anything else , he is satisfied with all he has.

b) Why do you think the poet says henceforth he needs nothing?

Ans: The poet says like this because he is satisfied with all he has. He do not want anything else.

c) What can you say about poet state of mind? Ans: The poet state of mind is in cool state. He is satisfied with his life.

2. I know they are very well where they are, I know they suffice for those who belong to them?

a) What does ‘they’ refer to in the above lines?

Ans: They refers to the constellations.

 b) Does the poet want to possess them? Why /why not?

Ans: No the poet does not want to possess them because he knows that they are well where they are and are sufficient for those who belong to them.

c) Name any one virtue that you can learn from the above lines? Give an example of a real-life situation where you can display that virtue?

Ans: one virtue that can be learnt is generosity. Virtue are habits. That is, once you acquire it, they become characteristic of a person. For eg. a person who has developed the virtue of generosity is often referred to as generous person because he tends to be generous in all circumstances.

Yuvakbharathi

Contents

SECTION ONE (Prose)

1.1 An Astrologer’s Day         R. K. Narayan  

1.2 On Saying “Please”           Alfred George Gardiner

1.3 The Cop and the Anthem             O’Henry

1.4 Big Data-Big Insights

1.5 The New Dress     Virginia Woolf

1.6 Into the Wild        Kiran Purandare

1.7 Why we Travel      Siddarth Pico Raghavan Iyer

1.8 Voyaging Towards Excellence     Achyut Godbole

SECTION TWO (Poetry)

2.1 Song of the Open Road    Walt Whitman

2.2 Indian Weavers                 Sarojini Naidu

2.3 The Inchcape Rock           Robert Southey

2.4 Have you Earned your Tomorrow            Edgar Guest

2.5 Father Returning Home    Dilip Chitre

2.6 Money       William H. Davies

2.7 She Walks in Beauty         George Gordon Byron

2.8 Small Towns and Rivers   Mamang Dai

Figures of Speech (all Poems)

SECTION THREE (Writing Skills)

3.1 Summary Writing

3.2 Do Schools Really Kill Creativity? (Mind-Mapping)

3.3 Note–Making

3.4 Statement of Purpose

3.5 Drafting a Virtual Message

3.6 Group Discussion

SECTION FOUR (Genre-Novel)

4.1 History of Novel

4.2 To Sir, with Love E. R. Braithwaite

4.3 Around the World in Eighty Days           Jules Gabriel Verne

4.4 The Sign of Four   Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle