Chapter 2 / Lesson 2 The Living World
1. Write the answers to the following questions in your own words.
(a) What are the differences between plants and animals?
|1) Plants have chlorophyll.||Animals do not have chlorophyll.|
|2) Plants prepare their own food.||Animals do not prepare their own food.|
|3) Plants are called autotrophs.||Animals are called heterotophs.|
|4) Plants cannot move from one place to another.||Animals can move from place to place.|
|5) Plants keep on growing during their life time.||Animals stop growing after a particular period.|
|6) Plants respire through tiny pores on their leaves and stems called stomatas.||Animals respire through lungs, gills or skin.|
|7) Plants perform excretion in the form of gum, sapresin, water vapour, etc. from barks, branches or leaves.||Animals excrete through special organs.|
|8) Plants take in carbon dioxide and give out oxygen.||Animals taken oxygen and give out carbon dioxide.|
(b) What are the similarities between plants and animals?
Ans. Both plant and animals show the following characteristics: growth, respiration, excretion, reproduction, responsiveness to stimuli, movement, a definite lifespan and a cellular structure.
(c) How is the plant kingdom useful to us?
Ans. The plant kingdom provides us with food, wood, medicines, they are used in industries, they prevent soil erosion; they are home to numerous animals and birds, they attract rain, they take in carbon dioxide and give out oxygen.
(d) How is the animal kingdom useful to us?
Ans. Animals are useful to us in the following ways:
They are domesticated and kept as pets.
The dog guards and protects us.
They provide meat, milk, wool, eggs, etc.
After their death, the skin is used as hide and bones are used for medicinal purposes.
Animals such as the horse, camel, elephant, donkey etc are used for transportation of goods and people
(e) What makes living things different from non-living things?
Ans. The characteristics of livings things such as, Growth, respiration, excretion, reproduction, responsiveness to stimuli, movement, a definite lifespan and a cellular structure makes the living things different from the non-living things.
2. What helps them to breathe? (a) A fish (b) A snake (c) A crane (d) An earthworm (e) Man (f) A banyan tree (g) A caterpillar
(a) A fish- gills
(b) A snake- nostrils
(c) A crane- nostrils (d) An earthworm- skin
(e) Man- nose
(f) A banyan tree- minute pores on leaves called stomata
(g) A caterpillar- minute holes on their body known as spiracles
3. Fill in the blanks with the proper words from the brackets.
(a) The process by which plants make their own food is called photosynthesis.
(b) To inhale oxyzen and to exhale carbon dioxide is called respiration.
(c) The elimination of waste substances from the body is called excretion.
(d) The ability to respond to an event is called responsiveness to stimuli.
(e) On completing their lifespan, every living thing dies.
(oxygen, dies, excretion, carbon dioxide, responsiveness, photosynthesis, stimuli)
4. Write the uses of these animals and plants.
Animals : Honeybees, sharks, yaks, sheep, earthworms, dogs, bivalves, horses, mice.
|honeybees||Give us honey and wax|
|sharks||Used as food, medicine and in cosmetic products|
|yaks||Give milk, wool and leather|
|sheep||Give wool and used as food|
|earthworms||Used by famers for vermicompost|
|dogs||Kept as pets as well as trained for security work|
|bivalves||Used as food|
|horse||Used as means of transportation as well as for racing|
|mice||Used in laboratories for testing|
Plants : Ginger, mango, eucalyptus, babul (acacia), teak, spinach, aloevera, turmeric, holy basil, karanja, moh, mulberry, grapevine.
|Ginger||Used in food and in medicines|
|Mango||Mango fruit is eaten|
|Eucalyptus||Used as medicinal oil|
|Babul (acacia)|| Used in tooth pasted, the twigs are used as |
|Teak||Used to make furniture|
|Spinach||Used as food|
|Aloevera||Used in medicinal and cosmetics|
|Turmeric||Used in food and in medicines|
|Holy basil||Used in medicines as well as for religious purposes|
|Karanja||Used for medicinal purposes|
|Moh||Used for medicinal purposes|
|Mulberry||Used for medicinal purposes and the fruits are eaten|
|grapevine||The fruits are eaten as well as made into vine|
5. What are the peculiarities of the movements of these living things?
Living things : Snakes, tortoises, kangaroos, eagles, chameleons, frogs, gulmohur, sweet potato creeper, dolphins, ants, rattlesnakes, grasshoppers, earthworms.
|Gulmohur||Move upward towards light|
|Sweet potato creeper||Creeps on the grund|
Obtain information about the work of the Botanical Survey of India and the Zoological Survey of India by visiting the websites : www.bsi.gov.in www.zsi.gov.in
Collect information about the lifespan of various animals, make a chart and display it in your class.
Gather information about the poisonous snakes found in India and present it in a Science Exhibition.
Answer the following.
Can you recall?
List the things seen in the picture. Say whether they are living or non-living things.
|Living Things||Non Living Things|
1. Is all the food we eat used by the body?
Ans. No, all the food we eat is not used by our body.
2. What is the unused part of food converted into?
Ans. The unused part of the food is converted into excreta.
Can you tell?
Observe a honeycomb and a wall. What are they made of?
Ans. A honeycomb is made up of cells or compartments and a wall is made up of bricks.
In what way are plants and animals useful to us?
Plants are used for household as well as industrial purposes. For example, fenugreek (methi), potato, okra (bhendi), apple, banana are used as food while vasaka (adulsa), hirada, behada, asparagus are used as medicines. Animals are also useful to us. Dogs, cats, cows, buffalos are kept for domestic uses. Fish, sheep, fowl are used as food, while animals like horses, oxen, camel prove useful in various occupations. The earthworm is very useful in agriculture.
Use your brain power!
1. What differences do you see in the growth of trees like the mango, banyan and peepal and that of the bamboo, coconut and toddy palms?
Ans. Trees like mango, banyan and peepal grow big, sturdy and their branches spread out forming a dome like structure on top whereas trees like bamboo, coconut and toddy palms grow straight and tall.
2. What is the sticky substance seen on the stems of the babul (acacia) or drumstick trees?
Ans. The sticky substance seen on the stems of the babul (acacia) or drumstick tree is the waste product of those trees.
3. Why have so many types of plants and animals been able to survive on the earth even today?
Ans. Many types of plants and animals have been able to survive on the earth even today because of reproduction or procreation which is one of the characteristics of living things.
Observe and discuss.
1. Hold your hand in front of your nose or keep your hand on your chest. What do you feel?
Ans. When I held our hand in front of my nose, I felt air coming out of my nostrils and when kept my hand on my chest, I could feel my heart beat.
2. If we observe a sleeping dog, what movement of its belly do we see?
Ans. If we observe the sleeping dog, we see its belly moving up and down.
3. What happened immediately after the following actions?
1. Light flashed suddenly into your eyes.
We immediately close our eyes or look away.
2. Suddenly you felt a pinprick.
Our hand will move away or we may put our hand to our mouth.
3. The leaves of the mimosa plant were touched.
They immediately start to close.
4. At sunset, lamps on the street or courtyard are lit and insects gather around the lamps.
They keep hovering near the light.
1. In each of the examples given above, what is the stimulus and what is the response?
|(1) Light flashed |
suddenly into your
|Flash of light||eyes closed |
|(2) Suddenly you felt apinprick.||Pin prick||your hand moved |
| (3) The leaves of the mimosa plant were |
|Hands touching the|
|(4) At sunset, lamps on the street or courtyard are lit and insects |
gather around the
|light from the lamps||insects hovering|
2. What is the main difference between the movements of plants and animals?
Ans. The main difference between the movements of plants and animals is that animals can move from one place to the other but the movement in plants is restricted to the place they grow i.e. the stems of the plants grow towards support or sunlight and the roots move deep into the soil in search of water and nutrients.