1. What’s the solution?
The plant in the pot is not growing well.
Ans. The following steps should be taken
(i) Ensure that the plant is getting sufficient sunlight.
(ii) Loosen the soil in the pot.
(iii) Add natural fertilizers to the soil.
(iv) If the plant is infested with fungus, spray natural pesticides.
(v) Trim the over grown part of the plant.
2. Use your brain power !
What is the purpose of storing food grain in our house?
Ans. We store food grains in our house as
(i) it saves time in going to the market everyday to purchase it.
(ii) the stored grain is available whenever we need it.
3. Find and correct the incorrect statements.
(a) There is only one method of farming.
Ans. Incorrect – There are many methods of farming.
(b) India is an agricultural country.
Ans. Correct- About 60% of the land of our country is in use for agriculture.
(c) Use of improved seeds does not lead to higher yields.
Ans. Incorrect – Using improved methods of farming leads to an increase in production.
4. Answer the following questions.
(a) What are the advantages of using improved seeds?
(i) Improved seeds have a higher yield.
(ii) They can resist pest attacks.
(iii) Some varieties become ripe for harvesting in a shorter period of time.
(iv) Some varieties give a high yield even with a low water supply
(b) Which are the modern methods of irrigation? What are their advantages?
Ans. Drip irrigation and sprinkle irrigation are the modern methods of irrigation.
Improved methods of irrigation provide enough water to the plants and at the same time, help to save a lot of water.
(c) Describe the ‘drip irrigation’ method.
Ans. The drip irrigation method makes use of pipes with holes. This ensures that the required amount of water drips only near the plants. Thus, full use is made of the available water.
(d) What are the reasons due to which growing crops are damaged?
Ans. (i) Diseases and pest attacks can damage crops in the fields.
(ii) If the crops do not get sufficient water, they may not grow well and the crops may get damaged.
(iii) Overwatering makes the land saline and fallow and the crops cannot grow well.
(e) What is done to avoid the damage to crops?
Ans. To avoid damage to crops, farmers now a days use the following ways:
(i) Good quality and improved variety of seeds are used.
(ii) Modern methods of irrigation such as drip irrigation and sprinkle irrigation are used.
(iii) Proper amounts of fertilizers are used.
(iv) Crops are sprayed with pesticides and insecticides.
(f) What causes the fertility of the soil to diminish?
Ans. The overuse of chemical fertilizers leads to accumulation of excessive chemicals in the soil. This lowers the fertility of the soil and reduces its productivity. Overwatering makes the land saline and fallow.
(g) What changes has modern technology brought about in the methods of farming?
Ans. (i) Improved seeds are developed through research which have higher yield.
(ii) Improved methods of irrigation are used which provide enough water to the plants and at the same time, help to save a lot of water.
(iii) Use of natural fertilizers and manures.
(iv) Use of pesticides and insecticides.
(v) Farmers are given proper information and guidance about the latest technology, irrigation facilities, improved seeds, use of fertilizers and pesticides, etc.
(h) What methods are used to preserve foodgrain?
Ans. (i) The grain is dried well in the sun and filled in sacks.
(ii) The sacks are then stocked in the house or, after selling, in warehouses or shops.
(iii) Chemicals are sprayed at the place of storage or all around it. Neem leaves are mixed in the grain.
(iv) Storage places are always kept dry and airy to prevent fungus formation.
(i) How is water made available for farming?
Ans. 1. Water from rivers, lakes and wells is used for irrigation in addition to rainwater.
2. Greater quantities of water are stored by building dams and bunds on rivers to obstruct the flow of water downstream. This also helps to raise the levels of groundwater.
3. Improved methods of irrigation such as drip and sprinkler irrigation are used which provide enough water to the plants and at the same time, help to save a lot of water.
5. Match the following.
|‘A’ Group||‘B’ Group|
|(1) Grain stored in a damp place||(a) Prevents growth of fungus on the grain|
|(2) Grain stored in dry air||(b) Prevents insect infestation|
|(3) Adding proper chemicals to the stored grain||(c) Fungus attack|
Ans. 1 – c; 2 – a; 3 – b