Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 7 Non-co-operation Movement
Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 7 Non-co-operation Movement Notes
Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers
Maharashtra State Board Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 7 Non-co-operation Movement
Class 8 History Chapter 7 Non-co-operation Movement Textbook Questions and Answers
1. Rewrite the statements by choosing the appropriate options.
(1) Gandhiji began his career from the country of ……………… .
(a) India (b) England (c) South Africa (d)Myanmar
Answer: (c) South Africa
(2) The farmers started the no-tax movement in the district of ……….. .
(a) Gorakhpur (b) Kheda (c) Solapur (d) Amravati
Answer: (b) Kheda
(3) As a protest to Jallianwala Baug massacre, Rabindranath Tagore returned the title of ………… bestowed upon him by the British Government.
(a) Lord (b) Sir (c) Raobahadur (d) Raosaheb
Answer: (b) Sir
2. Answer the following questions in one sentence.
(1) Which restriction was put up on the Blacks in South Africa according to the declaration of 1906?
Answer: In 1906, the Government declared that the it was compulsory for the blacks to carry an identity card and their freedom was restricted as well.
(2) Where did Gandhiji launch the first satyagraha in India?
Answer: Gandhili launched the first satyagraha in Champaran, Bihar in 1917.
(3) Which officer gave orders of firing in the Jallianwala Baug?
Answer: General Michael O Dyer, Governor of Punjab gave orders of firing in the Jallianwala Baug.
3. Answer the following questions in 25- 30 words.
(1) Explain the philosophy of Satyagraha.
(i) Satyagraha means insistence of truth.
(ii) The main objective of Satyagraha is through patience and Satyagraha an unjust person is made aware of truth and justice and also bring transformation in his views.
(iii) A person following satyagraha should never use violence and untruth means.
(2) Why was the Swaraj Party established?
Answer: The members of Indian National Congress such as Chittaranjan Das, Motilal Nehru put up the idea of contesting elections and obstructing the work of the British government. In 1922, the Swaraj Party was established.
4. Explain the following statements with reasons.
(1) Rowlatt Act was opposed by the people of India.
Answer: The Rowlatt Act gave the right to the government to arrest anybody without any warrant or imprison without any trial. Appeal was prohibited against the punishment given through this act. Therefore the Indians opposed it and called this act as ‘Black Act’.
(2) Gandhiji suspended the Non-co -operation Movement.
(i) In February 1922, the Police opened fire on a peaceful procession at Chauri Chaura in Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh.
(ii) The people were angry and set fire to the police station in which along with one officer, 22 policemen were killed.
(iii) Due to this incident, Gandhiji was hurt.
(iv) On 12 February 1922, Gandhiji suspended the Non-co-operation Movement.
(3) The Indians boycotted the Simon Commission.
(i) The reforms introduced by the Montague Chelmsford Act of 1919 were unsatisfactory.
(ii) Hence there was discontent among the Indian people.
(iii) On this background, the British appointed a commission under the chairmanship of Sir John Simon.
(iv) In this commission, none of the Indian member was included. Hence the Congress decided to boycott the Simon Commission.
(4) Khilafat Movement was started in India.
(i) Muslims all over the world regarded the ruler of Turkey
as their religious leader.
(ii) During the first world war Turkey fought against the British.
(iii) To get the support of the Indian Muslims in the war, the British had assured that after the end of the war, Khalifa’s empire will not be harmed.
(iv) But after the end of First World War England did not stick to its assuarance.
(v) A tide of great discontent aroused among the Muslims.
(vi) The movement started by Indian Muslims to support the Khalifa was called ‘Khilafat Movement’.
Trace out the pledge of independence that was taken on 26th January 1930 and read it aloud collectively in the classroom.
The pledge of independence that was taken on 26th January 1930.
We believe that it is the inalienable right of the Indian people, as of any other people, to have freedom and to enjoy the fruits of their toil and have the necessities of life, so that they may have full opportunities of growth. We believe also that if any government deprives a people of these rights and oppresses them the people have a further right to alter it or to abolish it. The British government in India has not only deprived the Indian people of their freedom but has based itself on the exploitation of the masses, and has ruined India economically, politically, culturally, and spiritually. We believe, therefore, that India must sever the British connection and attain Purna Swaraj or complete independence.
India has been ruined economically. The revenue derived from our people is out of all proportion to our income. Our average income is seven pice (less than twopence) per day, and of the heavy taxes we pay, twenty per cent are raised from the land revenue derived from the peasantry and three per cent from the salt tax, which falls most heavily on the poor.
Village industries, such as hand-spinning, have been destroyed, leaving the peasantry idle for at least four months in the year, and dulling their intellect for want of handicrafts, and nothing has been substituted, as in other countries, for the crafts thus destroyed.
Customs and currency have been so manipulated as to heap further burdens on the peasantry. The British manufactured goods constitute the bulk of our imports. Customs duties betray clear partiality for British manufactures, and revenue from them is used not to lessen the burden on the masses but for sustaining a highly extravagant administration. Still more arbitrary has been the manipulation of the exchange ratio, which has resulted in millions being drained away from the country.
Politically, India’s status has never been so reduced as under the British regime. No reforms have given real political power to the people. The tallest of us have to bend before foreign authority. The rights of free expression of opinion and free association have been denied to us, and many of our countrymen are compelled to live in exile abroad and cannot return to their homes. All administrative talent is killed, and the masses have to be satisfied with petty village offices and clerkships.
Culturally, the system of education has torn us from our moorings, and our training has made us hug the very chains that bind us.
Spiritually, compulsory disarmament has made us unmanly, and the presence of an alien army of occupation, employed with deadly effect to crush in us the spirit of resistance, has made us think that we cannot look after ourselves or put up a defense against foreign aggression, or even defend our homes and families from the attacks of thieves, robbers and miscreants.
We hold it to be a crime against man and God to submit any longer to a rule that has caused this fourfold disaster to our country. We recognize, however, that the most effective way of gaining our freedom is not through violence. We will therefore prepare ourselves by withdrawing, so far as we can, all voluntary association from the British Government, and will prepare for civil disobedience, including nonpayment of taxes. We are convinced that if we can but withdraw our voluntary help and stop payment of taxes without doing violence, even under provocation, the end of this inhuman rule is assured. We therefore hereby solemnly resolve to carry out the Congress instructions issued from time to time for the purpose of establishing Purna Swaraj.